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婴儿期和儿童期创伤对成年期记忆功能的影响
王岚李娜宋美高媛媛赵晓川安翠霞王育梅王学义
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摘要:
目的 探讨早年不同时期的创伤对成年后记忆功能的远期影响。方法 以2014年1~12月 调查的唐山开滦集团1976年地震前后出生的在册工人共1 542人为研究对象,按照出生年月和儿童期创 伤量表( CTQ)总分的平均分作为划界分组,共分为4组:婴儿期暴露+CTQ高分组,婴儿期暴露+CTQ低 分组,未暴露+CTQ高分组,未暴露+CTQ低分组。采用霍普金斯词汇学习测验(HVLT)和简易视觉空间 记忆测验(BVMT)分别评估3次词语记忆和空间记忆,并记录3次成绩总分。结果 (1)4组间年龄、性别、 文化程度的差异均有统计学意义(F年龄=470.094,F性别=11.911,F文化程度=43.484;P< 0.01)。婴儿暴露组年 龄均大于未暴露组;4组男性均多于女性,文化程度以高中为主。4组间婚姻状况、吸烟史、饮酒史、家庭 月收入的差异均无统计学意义(P> 0.05)。(2)在男性中,4组间HVLT1-3、HVLT总分、BVMT1-3、BVMT 总分的差异均有统计学意义(P < 0.05)。除HVLT1外,婴儿期暴露+CTQ高分组的其余成绩均低于婴儿 期暴露+CTQ低分组(P < 0.05);未暴露+CTQ高分组的所有成绩均低于未暴露+CTQ低分组(P < 0.05); 婴儿期暴露+CTQ高分组仅HVLT3得分低于未暴露+CTQ高分组(P < 0.05);婴儿期暴露+CTQ低分组仅 BVMT3得分低于未暴露+CTQ低分组(P < 0.05)。在女性中,4组间各项评分差异均无统计学意义(P > 0.05)。(3)所有男性受试者中,初中及以下学历中,4组间仅HVLT2得分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),其余 记忆功能成绩的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);高中学历中,4组间各项评分差异均有统计学意义(P< 0.05); 大专及以上学历中,4组间上述记忆成绩的差异均无统计学意义(P> 0.05)。结论 男性婴儿期和儿童期 经历地震创伤均可能导致成年期词语和空间记忆功能受损,特别是儿童期创伤更为明显。接受高等教育 的经历可能会抵消早年创伤对记忆的远期影响。
关键词:  婴儿期  儿童期  早年创伤  成年  言语记忆  空间记忆
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1009-6574.2017.11.005
基金项目:国家自然基金面上项目(81271489);河北省科学技术研究与发展计划项目(09276103D);河北省自然科 学基金面上项目(H2014206280)
Effects of infancy and childhood trauma on adult memory function
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Abstract:
Objective To explore the different long-term effects of infancy and childhood trauma on adult memory function. Methods A total of 1 542 workers of Kailuan Group born before and after the Tangshan earthquake in 1976 were investigated from January to December in 2014. All subjects were divided into four groups according to the birth date and the average score of childhood trauma questionnaire( CTQ): infancy exposure + CTQ high group, infancy exposure + CTQ low group, no exposure + CTQ high group, no exposure + CTQ low group. The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test( HVLT) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test( BVMT) were used to evaluate the verbal memory and spatial memory respectively for three times, and the total scores of three assessment results were recorded. Results There were statistically significant differences in age, gender and education level among the four groups( Fage=470.094, Fgender=11.911, Fdegree of education=43.484, P < 0.01). The age of infant exposed group was greater than that of no exposure group. Male were more than female in the four groups, and the education level was mainly high school. There was no significant difference in marital status, smoking history, drinking history and family monthly income( P > 0.05). In male participants, there were statistically significant differences in the scores of HVLT1-3, HVLT total score, BVMT1-3 and BVMT total score in male participants( P<0.05), but no difference in above scores in female( P>0.05). In addition to HVLT1, the other scores of infant expouse + CTQ high group were significantly lower than those of the no exposure + CTQ high group( P<0.05). All scores of the no exposure + CTQ high group were lower than those ofthe no exposure + CTQ low group( P<0.05). Only the score of HVLT3 in the infants exposure + CTQ high group was lower than that in the no exposure + CTQ high group( P<0.05) and BVMT3 score of infant exposure + CTQ low group was lower than that of no exposure + CTQ low group( P< 0.05). In female, there was no statistical significance in the differences of all scores( P>0.05). In male participants with education level of junior high school and below, only the difference in score of HCLT2 was statistically significant( P<0.05), and there was no statistical significance in other score of memory function among the 4 groups( P>0.05). The differences in all scores of the participants with senior high school education background were statistically significant( P<0.05), while there was no statistically significant difference in all scores mentioned above of participants with college degree and above among the four groups( P > 0.05). Conclusions In male, infancy and childhood trauma can lead to impairment of verbal and spatial memory in adulthood, which caused by childhood trauma is more obvious. Accepting higher education may counteract the long-term effects of early trauma on memory.
Key words:  Infancy  Childhood  Early trauma  Adult  Verbal memory  Spatial memory

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