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自愿戒毒机构使用苯丙胺类兴奋剂住院患者的临床特征和诊疗情况
钟娜阮晓璐杜江韩慧甘鸿孙海明赵敏
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摘要:
目的探讨自愿戒毒机构苯丙胺类兴奋剂(ATS)使用者的临床特征及诊疗情况。方法对上海某自愿戒毒机构 5年内所有住院的 ATS使用者的病史资料进行回顾性调查,包括药物滥用史、临床特征、诊断、治疗及疗效。结果共纳入 266例 ATS使用者,男性患者有事实婚姻比例更高(P< 0.05),女性中既往曾经使用过其他物质比例更高(P< 0.05)。约 50%的 ATS患者入院时有幻觉、妄想、活动增加、易激惹、睡眠障碍等临床症状,其中 81.2%患者被诊断为 ATS所致精神病性障碍,经过约 10 d住院治疗(如抗精神病药物等),95.8%患者能够好转出院。结论自愿戒毒机构住院的 ATS使用者存在丰富的精神病性症状,治疗后患者症状改善明显, ATS患者在临床特征、滥用情况上存在性别差异,今后应开发有针对性的干预措施,提高 ATS患者的就诊率利于其长期康复。
关键词:  回顾性研究  苯丙胺类兴奋剂  依赖  自愿戒毒
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1009-6574.2017.08.003
基金项目:上海市精神卫生中心启航计划(2014-QH-01);国家自然科学基金青年基金资助项目(81501148);上海市卫生计生委先进适宜技术推广项目(2013SY011);上海市卫生计生委重要疾病联合攻关项目(2014ZYJB0002);国家自然基金联合基金重点项目(U1502228)
Clinical characteristic and diagnosis and treatment situation of patients using amphetamine-type stimulants in voluntary rehabilitation hospital
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Abstract:
Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics and diagnosis and treatment situation of patients using amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS)in voluntary rehabilitation hospital. Methods The medical record of hospitalized ATS users in voluntary rehabilitation hospital in Shanghai was retrospectively investigated,in-cluding their drug use history,clinical characteristic,diagnosis,treatment and prognosis. Results Two hundred and sixty six hospitalized ATS users were recruited. Male patients had significantly higher proportion of marriage and lowerproportion of previously using other substance than female patients (P<0.05). 50% of ATS subjects experienced the symptoms of hallucination,delusion,agitation,irritability,sleeping disorders and so on. 81.2% of subjects were diagnosed by ATS induced psychotic disorder. After about 10 d of hospitalization,the symptoms of 95.8% sub-jects could get obviously improved and were discharged from hospital. Conclusions The hospitalized ATS users showed high proportion of psychiatric symptoms,and there is gender difference in clinical characteristic features and substance use. Using the tailored intervention and increasing the attendance rate could improve the long-term rehabilitation for ATS patients.
Key words:  Retrospective study  Amphetamine-type stimulants  Addiction  Voluntary rehabili-tation

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